Gardner and Brady and their battlefield antics
Gardner, 1821-1882: Battle-field of Gettysburg-Dead Confederate sharpshooter at foot of Little Round Top [i.e., Devil’s Den]
First image to the left represents the original and the second represents the repositioning for dramatic effect.
Images 1&2 from: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91732531/
Research has been carried out to show how falsifying an image can create false memories. The subject of experiment here was asked questions and then later requestioned. At the time of re-questioning, having been asked to image what might have happened if the manipulated image had not been manipulated, the person expounded the events that they thought had taken place, as if they were so. This shows the shoddy and unreliable nature of memory.
Sarinana points out that for ‘creative endeavours’ this is not an issue, but what about the presentation of facts and documents in the form of evidence? (Sarinana, 2013)  Here is where the subject as we know starts to get tricky.
- Sarinana, J. Manipulated photographs, manipulated memories (2013) [online] https://petapixel.com/2013/07/28/manipulated-photographs-manipulated-memories/ [accessed, May 2020]